The stolen bytes: Visual Studio, virtual methods and data alignment

This article describes a design choice in the C++ ABI of the Visual Studio compiler that I believe should be considered a bug. I propose a trivial workaround at the end.

TL;DR — if the topmost polymorphic class in a hierarchy has members with alignment requirement N where N > sizeof(void *), the Visual Studio compiler may add up to N bytes of useless padding to your objects.

Update: be sure to read the explanation by Jan Gray, who designed the relevant part of the MS C++ ABI some 22 years ago, in the comments section below.

My colleague Benlitz first hit the problem when trying to squeeze memory out of some of our game’s most often instantiated classes. I think it is best illustrated with the following minimal example:

class Foo
    virtual void Hello() {}

    float f;     /* 4 bytes */
class Bar
    virtual void Hello() {}

    float f;     /* 4 bytes */
    double d;    /* 8 bytes */

This is the size of Foo and Bar on various 32-bit platforms:

Platform sizeof(Foo) sizeof(Bar) Madness?
Linux x86 (gcc) 8 16 no
Linux ARMv9 (gcc) 8 16 no
Win32 (gcc) 8 16 no
Win32 (Visual Studio 2010) 8 24 yes
Xbox 360 (Visual Studio 2010) 8 24 yes
PlayStation 3 (gcc) 8 16 no
PlayStation 3 (SNC) 8 16 no
Mac OS X x86 (gcc) 8 16 no

There is no trick. This is by design. The Visual Studio compiler is literally stealing 8 bytes from us!

What the fuck is happening?

This is the memory layout of Foo on all observed platforms:

byte & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7 \\
field & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
      & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f;}} \\

The vfptr field is a special pointer to the vtable. The vtable is probably the most widespread compiler-specific way to implement virtual methods. Since all the platforms studied here are 32-bit, this pointer requires 4 bytes. A float requires 4 bytes, too. The total size of the class is therefore 8 bytes.

This is the memory layout of Bar on eg. Linux using GCC:

byte & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7
     & 8 & 9 & 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 14 & 15 \\
field & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
      & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f;}}
      & \multicolumn{8}{|c|}{\texttt{double d;}} \\

The double type has an alignment requirement of 8 bytes, which makes it fit perfectly at byte offset 8.

And finally, this is the memory layout of Bar on Win32 using Visual Studio 2010:

byte & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7
     & 8 & 9 & 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 14 & 15
     & 16 & 17 & 18 & 19 & 20 & 21 & 22 & 23 \\
field & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
      & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
      & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f;}}
      & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
      & \multicolumn{8}{|c|}{\texttt{double d;}} \\

This is madness! The requirement for the class to be 8-byte aligned causes the first element of the class to be 8-byte aligned, too! I demand a rational explanation for this design choice.

The problem is that the compiler decides to add the vtable pointer after it has aligned the class data, resulting in excessive realignment.

Compilers affected

The Visual Studio compilers for Win32, x64 and Xbox 360 all appear to create spurious padding in classes.

Though this article focuses on 32-bit platforms for the sake of simplicity, 64-bit Windows is affected, too.

The problem becomes even worse with larger alignment requirements, for instance with SSE3 or AltiVec types that require 16-byte storage alignment such as _FP128:

class Quux
    virtual void Hello() {}

    float f;     /* 4 bytes */
    _FP128 dd;   /* 16 bytes */

This is the GCC memory layout on both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms:

byte & 0--3 & 4--7 & 8--11 & 12--15
     & 16--19 & 20--23 & 24--27 & 28--31 \\
field (32-bit) & \textit{vfptr}
                & \texttt{float f;}
                & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
                & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{\_FP128 dd;}} \\
field (64-bit) & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
               & \texttt{float f;}
               & \textit{padding}
               & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{\_FP128 dd;}} \\

The padding there is perfectly normal and expected, because of the alignment requirements for dd.

But this is how Visual Studio decides to lay it out:

byte & 0--3 & 4--7 & 8--11 & 12--15
     & 16--19 & 20--23 & 24--27 & 28--31
     & 32--35 & 36--39 & 40--43 & 44--47 \\
field (32-bit) & \textit{vfptr}
               & \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
               & \texttt{float f;}
               & \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
               & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{\_FP128 dd;}} \\
field (64-bit) & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
               & \multicolumn{2}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
               & \texttt{float f;}
               & \multicolumn{3}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
               & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{\_FP128 dd;}} \\

That is 16 lost bytes, both on 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows.


There is fortunately a workaround if you want to get rid of the useless padding. It is so trivial that it actually makes me angry that the problem exists in the first place.

This will get you your bytes back:

class EmptyBase
    virtual ~EmptyBase() {}

class Bar : public EmptyBase
    virtual void Hello() {}

    float f;     /* 4 bytes */
    double d;    /* 8 bytes */

And this is the size of Bar on the same 32-bit platforms:

Platform sizeof(Bar)
Linux x86 (gcc) 16
Linux ARMv9 (gcc) 16
Win32 (gcc) 16
Win32 (Visual Studio 2010) 16
Xbox 360 (Visual Studio 2010) 16
PlayStation 3 (gcc) 16
PlayStation 3 (SNC) 16
Mac OS X x86 (gcc) 16

Phew. Sanity restored.

byte & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7
     & 8 & 9 & 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 14 & 15 \\
\texttt{EmptyBase} fields & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
                          & \multicolumn{12}{|c|}{} \\
\texttt{Bar} fields & \multicolumn{4}{c}{\texttt{EmptyBase}}
                    & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f;}}
                    & \multicolumn{8}{|c|}{\texttt{double d;}} \\

The compiler is a lot less confused now: it no longer has to create space for a vfptr in Bar since it is technically already part of EmptyBase.


Lessons learned:

  • The pointer to the vtable isn’t just like any other pointer.
  • Various C++ ABIs have different stances on padding and alignment.
  • Inheriting from an empty abstract class can make your objects smaller on Windows and Xbox 360!
  • Design decisions can haunt you for decades!

The workaround is so simple that it sounds like a good idea to always use it, preemptively.

Attachments (1)

Download all attachments as: .zip


1. capisce -- 2012-10-21 12:22

In what way is 64-bit Windows affected? I'd assume that sizeof(Bar) would be 24 bytes with both gcc and visual studio 64-bit, since the vtable pointer presumably will be 8 bytes then, and 4 bytes of padding will be added for the float?

I just verified that sizeof(Bar) will be 24 bytes with gcc targeting x86-64. Do you mean that sizeof(Bar) is greater than 24 bytes with visual studio 64-bit?

2. capisce -- 2012-10-21 12:25

Ok, I guess you mean 64-bit is affected when it comes to SSE3 or AltiVec types with 16-byte alignment.

3. sam -- 2012-10-21 12:26

@capisce yes, that is what I meant. I will add a short example to make it clear.

4. anonymous -- 2012-10-21 13:30

And what happen when you use #pragma pack ?

5. -- 2012-10-21 13:36

"Apparently the compiler is a lot less confused now that the vtable pointer is technically no longer part of Bar ."

Deriving from another virtual class does not make the vtable pointer go away - of course the derived class has its own vtable!

6. sam -- 2012-10-21 13:40

@anonymous: when using #pragma pack the issue disappears since there are no alignment constraints any more. But this causes a whole lot of other problems with potentially illegal unaligned reads. Packing class members is definitely not acceptable when using AltiVec, for instance.

Note that manually tailoring the class so that all members lie at properly aligned offsets within the object is not a solution either. There is no guarantee that the object will be allocated at a properly aligned address, especially on the stack.

7. sam -- 2012-10-21 13:43

@sampsa.lehtonen: check the sentence; I am saying that the vtable pointer is technically no longer part of Bar because it is part of EmptyBase, not because I somehow believe it went away.

8. anonymous -- 2012-10-21 17:26

I can't believe anyone cares about saving such a tiny amount of memory in 2012.

9. anonymous -- 2012-10-21 18:00

Make that 'I can't believe console manufacturers can get away with putting such a shitty amount of RAM in consoles.'. Even a few bytes per object can add up if you have lots of objects, and do note it scales with the amount of variables on the class.

10. anonymous2 -- 2012-10-21 18:11

@anonymous Maybe you can't believe that because you have no idea what you're writing about? If some class is instantiated a few million times, 8 bytes of savings per instance can quickly add up to something substantial, in particular on video game consoles or mobile devices. Less padding might in turn lead to further savings by the memory allocator and may also improve CPU cache access patterns.

11. RuTT -- 2012-10-21 18:24


Can't tell if your comment is negative or positive, but thanks to such guys who care about saving such a tiny amount of memory, we have incredible games running on ~7 years-old, totally obsolete hardware.

Great things start from tiny beginnings.

12. sam -- 2012-10-21 18:27

@anonymous: modern desktop CPUs have a typical L1 data cache size of about 64 KiB. The latest iPad and iPhone have an L1 data cache of 32 KiB. The PlayStation 3 SPUs have a local memory of 256 KiB.

If that doesn’t teach you why 8 or 16 bytes per object can matter, study more.

13. ponce -- 2012-10-21 19:08


Note that manually tailoring the class so that all members lie at properly aligned offsets within the object is not a solution either. There is no guarantee that the object will be allocated at a properly aligned address, especially on the stack.

I'm not sure to understand where the work-around could fail.

  • #pragma pack (or equivalent) and manual padding can be used to ensure a memory layout.
  • I think the alignment of the object base address (vs field relative address) is a separate problem. The base address need be aligned anyway, isn't it?

That said, it is indeed unfortunate that MSVC does something like that.

14. ponce -- 2012-10-21 19:15

Er... never mind, you already have a work-around.

15. @jangray -- 2012-10-21 19:32

I wrote the object layout code in the MS C++ compiler, ~22 years ago. Mea culpa.

Here is a "rational explanation" that addresses when you might need to worry about this.

If I recall correctly layout of Bar reveals an unfortunate layout phase ordering choice: a vfptr is inserted into a class layout (if required and not inheritable from a base class) only after the new data members have been laid out, respecting their natural alignment, and so as to still preserve natural alignment. This explains class Bar: after data member layout, we have f@0 and d@8 (naturally aligned); then inserting a vfptr (and keeping d 8B aligned) we have vfptr@0, f@8, d@16.

So you may rarely get this extra alignment padding if the class 1) introduces (not inherits) a vfptr or vbptr; 2) has a naturally aligned data member longer than a vfptr that 3) is preceded by shorter data member(s) that otherwise could have fit between between vfptr and (2), keeping (2) naturally aligned. So Bar above has extra padding, but Bar2 below does not:

class Bar2 { virtual void Hello(); float f; float f2; double d; };

It should be the same size (24B) across all cited 32b and 64b implementations.

Unfortunate, but that's what was shipped all those long years ago (16b/32b). ABIs being what they are this cannot be changed as the default layout. I’m not sure what transpired with the more recent x64 ABI except that 64b vfptrs mean this is only of concern if using 128b+ data members (and _FP_128 is itself an embedded _CRT_ALIGN’d struct, yes?).

The suggested workaround is one way to mitigate the extra padding. I applaud your attention to memory footprint optimization. But I would not encourage its indiscriminate use, however, nor see it adopted as a cargo cult "I don't know what it does but it is supposed to make objects smaller".

cl /d1reportAllClassLayout can be instructive.

See also

Thank you.

(Not employed by nor speaking for Microsoft, etc.)

16. sam -- 2012-10-21 22:39

@jangray Thanks a lot for taking some of your time to share this part of history with us!

Your explanation is consistent with our observations. So, the fact that the vfptr is inserted last means in practice that the first member of the class is always aligned at a N-byte boundary (where N is the maximum alignment requirement of the class members) even though it might not require that alignment.

Your Bar2 class is a good example where that padding is not problematic, since some padding would have been necessary at some point anyway:

byte & 0 & 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 & 5 & 6 & 7
     & 8 & 9 & 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 14 & 15
     & 16 & 17 & 18 & 19 & 20 & 21 & 22 & 23 \\
field (gcc) & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
            & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f;}}
            & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f2;}}
            & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
            & \multicolumn{8}{|c|}{\texttt{double d;}} \\
field (MSVC) & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{vfptr}}
             & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textit{padding}}
             & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f;}}
             & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\texttt{float f2;}}
             & \multicolumn{8}{|c|}{\texttt{double d;}} \\

It’s unfortunate that the x64 and Xbox 360 ABIs weren’t “fixed” when the opportunity was given… but well, it’s not a big deal when one knows how to avoid it.

17. anonymous -- 2012-10-23 08:33

What if i told u "Inheriting from empty abstract class could make your objects small" - simply brilliant

18. Referencing quote -- 2013-12-14 15:35

“What if I told you inheriting from an empty abstract class could make your objects smaller”

— Morpheus-sam, 2012.

24. Franciswhow -- 2016-10-05 05:43
332. Smithd472 -- 2017-01-09 14:25

That alone wwas an egregious oversight on thheir own part, since gadedkgbkdkkdgkb

337. Smithf855 -- 2017-01-30 16:03

Hey very nice site!! Man .. Beautiful .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds alsoI am happy to find a lot of useful info here in the post, we need work out more techniques in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . . kakgdddeedbdbecc

338. Smithe492 -- 2017-02-01 00:22

I appreciate, cause I found just what I was looking for. You have ended my 4 day long hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye kkkfagcdcbdeekek

340. -- 2017-11-08 11:40


341. anonymous -- 2017-12-11 07:04

It’s very excellent information and more real facts to provided that post

342. anonymous -- 2018-03-20 11:27

You have posted very nice tutorial which i like it a lot. I have learned a lot from this post which will help me in future. Get Garage Shelving from

343. anonymous -- 2018-04-04 19:46

I would just like to say you have done the useful job by sharing such type of interesting information. Keep sharing useful information in future.

344. Paint tool sai download -- 2018-05-08 12:13

It is a good software for edit and painting your photos.

345. anonymousBuckwheat -- 2018-06-01 12:56

I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post. Buckwheat

346. Benefits of Mango -- 2018-06-01 13:54

It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you few interesting things or tips. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read more things about it[ Benefits of Mango]

347. Benefits of Mango -- 2018-06-01 13:56

It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you few interesting things or tips. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read more things about it! Benefits of Mango

348. Mangosteen -- 2018-06-01 14:11

Well, this got me thinking what other workouts are good for those of us who find ourselves on the road or have limited equipment options. Mangosteen

349. Spirulina -- 2018-06-01 14:20

This is really a nice and informative, containing all information and also has a great impact on the new technology. Thanks for sharing it, Spirulina

350. Pomegranate Seed Oil -- 2018-06-01 14:39

Its as if you had a great grasp on the subject matter, but you forgot to include your readers. Perhaps you should think about this from more than one angle. Pomegranate Seed Oil

351. Grapeseed Oil -- 2018-06-01 15:17

I really enjoyed reading this post, big fan. Keep up the good work andplease tell me when can you publish more articles or where can I read more on the subject? Grapeseed Oil

352. Folate -- 2018-06-01 15:27

I just got to this amazing site not long ago. I was actually captured with the piece of resources you have got here. Big thumbs up for making such wonderful blog page Folate

353. Folic Acid -- 2018-06-01 15:35

This post is very simple to read and appreciate without leaving any details out. Great work! Folic Acid

354. anonymous -- 2018-06-25 11:20


355. Deana Johnson -- 2018-06-26 13:50

Hi, just desired to say thank you, you have solved all my hesitations about this topics. I can't give details about how much I googled about this. Thanks very much, guru nice session!

Regards: Essay Writing UK

356. anonymous -- 2018-08-08 10:44

I thank you for the information! I was looking for and could not find. You helped me!

357. anonymous -- 2018-09-04 08:44

Fireboy and Watergirl -

358. alishia -- 2018-09-15 20:07

Excellent read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch since I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

359. Term Paper Writing Services -- 2018-09-18 07:58

Hi Buddy, Your Blog' S Design Is Simple And Clean And I Like It. Your Blog Posts About Online Writing Help Are Superb. Please Keep Them Coming. Greets!

360. Pay Me To Do OS Homework -- 2018-09-18 09:53

Get The Dissertation Writing Service Students Look For These Days With The Prime Focus Being Creating A Well Researched And Lively Content On Any Topic.

361. violet -- 2018-09-22 04:14

Commonly we attain confused when we finally hear the exact terms website development service in addition to internet developer getting used interchangeably. But thoughts is broken done looking over this, all your individual confusions may perhaps disappear. Poof!

362. anonymous -- 2018-09-24 04:11

Clicker heroes Online -

363. anonymous -- 2018-10-09 19:22

This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information... meaning of third eye

364. anonymous -- 2018-10-12 14:07

Thank you very much for keep this information.

365. anonymous -- 2018-10-14 10:18

This was a really great contest and hopefully I can attend the next one. It was alot of fun and I really enjoyed myself.. urlaub mit snowtimes

366. anonymous -- 2018-10-15 10:46

This article was written by a real thinking writer. I agree many of the with the solid points made by the writer. I’ll be back. pos4less Kassenrollen Großhandel

367. anonymous -- 2018-10-15 11:14

Your articles are really amazing and I got a lot of information and guidance reading them. bullet force

368. anonymous -- 2018-10-16 17:07

This was a really great contest and hopefully I can attend the next one. It was alot of fun and I really enjoyed myself.. patron pantalon femme

369. anonymous -- 2018-10-21 07:13

I think this is a really good article. You make this information interesting and engaging. You give readers a lot to think about and I appreciate that kind of writing. IEPNW

370. anonymous -- 2018-10-22 12:06

I really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to undertand. Unlike additional blogs I have read which are really not tht good. I also found your posts very interesting. In fact after reading, I had to go show it to my friend and he ejoyed it as well! Ado Berlin

371. anonymous -- 2018-10-23 11:15

This blog website is pretty cool! How was it made ! Nirvana Asian Massage

372. anonymous -- 2018-10-27 15:30

I am happy to find this post very useful for me, as it contains lot of information. I always prefer to read the quality content and this thing I found in you post. Thanks for sharing. Snowtime in ramsbottom

373. anonymous -- 2018-10-29 10:41

I am happy to find your distinguished way of writing the post. Now you make it easy for me to understand and implement the concept. Thank you for the post. Poster Display

374. anonymous -- 2018-10-31 16:58

Its a great pleasure reading your post.Its full of information I am looking for and I love to post a comment that "The content of your post is awesome" Great work. SEO Agentur Ruhrgebiet

375. anonymous -- 2018-11-01 08:47
376. anonymous -- 2018-11-03 09:29

I learn some new stuff from it too, thanks for sharing your information. Income

377. anonymous -- 2018-11-04 16:35

I love the way you write and share your niche! Very interesting and different! Keep it coming! Rolas Bernards

378. anonymous -- 2018-11-26 09:04

This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing websites that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. It is the old what goes around comes around routine. click here

379. -- 2018-11-27 06:21

Red Lobster invites its customers to participate in the survey conducted by them. The official survey site of Red Lobster is

380. Assignment help -- 2018-11-27 06:51

Psychology is the most crucial discipline which supports other disciplines as well. Students have to write essay assignments on the several topics of psychology which are assigned by teachers. Students Assignment Help provides the services of customer psychology assignment help to the students.All Assignment Help is an online Assignment Help and assignment writing service offering expert assignment help.

381. Androzene Reviews -- 2018-11-29 12:22

I just couldn't leave your website before telling you that I truly enjoyed the top quality info you present to your visitors? Will be back again frequently to check up on new posts. Androzene Reviews

382. anonymous -- 2018-11-29 14:38

You completely match our expectation and the variety of our information. Male Extra

383. Beard Growth Oil -- 2018-11-30 14:41

Nice blog and absolutely outstanding. You can do something much better but i still say this perfect.Keep trying for the best. Beard Growth Oil

384. best writers reviews -- 2018-12-03 11:41

Our My Assignment Help Reviews go through hundreds of websites each month to select only the best. We also offer reviews of such websites which are not up to the mark so that you may know about them as well.

385. anonymous -- 2018-12-05 08:05

Great information were share by you which i Did not know before reading it that Data structure alignment refers to the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory. It consists of three separate but related issues: data alignment, data structure padding, and packing.

386. anonymous -- 2018-12-09 12:45

The post is written in very a good manner and it contains many useful information for me. Acer Coe

387. anonymous -- 2018-12-12 11:04

Your content is nothing short of brilliant in many ways. I think this is engaging and eye-opening material. Thank you so much for caring about your content and your readers. slim wave garcinia reviews

388. anonymous -- 2018-12-12 16:23

As a seller of legal steroids, you can buy Crazy Bulk products, explore stacks and finally get the body you’ve always wanted kings gold keto ingredients

389. anonymous -- 2018-12-12 16:57

Nice post! This is a very nice blog that I will definitively come back to more times this year! Thanks for informative post. Keto Kinetics

390. anonymous -- 2018-12-25 04:10

Thanks for your lesson, I will immediately apply these things!

391. anonymous -- 2018-12-30 18:54
392. anonymous -- 2018-12-31 02:49

This article was great, I read a lot of articles with this topic, but I found your article to have the most impressive and detailed content, I hope you will have more interesting tracks. more to bring to the reader, thank you for sharing. [url=]candy crush sodaurl

393. anonymous -- 2019-01-08 22:12

Thanks for taking the time to discuss that, I feel strongly about this and so really like getting to know more on this kind of field. Do you mind updating your blog post with additional insight? It should be really useful for all of us. Milwaukee Marketing Company

394. anonymous -- 2019-01-09 22:36

Great article with excellent idea!Thank you for such a valuable article. I really appreciate for this great information.. wedding photography packages singapore

395. anonymous -- 2019-01-13 21:44

useful information on topics that plenty are interested on for this wonderful post.Admiring the time and effort you put into your b!.. SnoBlaze

396. Mickey James -- 2019-01-16 07:29

Bytes and bites method is typical to understand. is a place for hosting.

397. anonymous -- 2019-01-21 20:37

It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it! you can check here

398. anonymous -- 2019-01-22 16:31

This is a truly good site post. Not too many people would actually, the way you just did. I am really impressed that there is so much information about this subject that have been uncovered and you’ve done your best, with so much class. If wanted to know more about green smoke reviews, than by all means come in and check our stuff. you could try this out

399. Katie Bell -- 2019-02-02 12:47

Obtaining of a 64-bit program code not only removes Wow64 but also improves efficiency. It's related to structural changes in micro-processors, such as the increase in number of general-purpose signs up onto like Write My Coursework Online . For a normal program the predicted efficiency development triggered by a typical collection is 5-15%. But in this case everything relies on the applying and data types.

400. -- 2019-02-04 15:38

Many grown-ups have this propensity for keeping the carport entryway up consistently when they are working in the carport or even at home.

401. anonymous -- 2019-02-05 15:13

Perusing books and articles causes you in getting thoughts.

402. Sandy Davidson -- 2019-02-11 13:54

Through this informative article, we'll discover the Ignite SQL API and see how to use it with Avro information. As mentioned previously, Ignite SQL is an Ignite component for organized information systems. It provides a development abstraction known as DataFrames and can also act as allocated SQL question motor as described by A DataFrame is an allocated selection of information organized into known as content. We can think of a DataFrame as a desk in a relational data source or as a data frame in R or Python.

403. Francis -- 2019-02-13 12:21

Interesting post! <a href="">fahrschule schaffhausen</a>

405. anonymous -- 2019-02-16 10:55
406. anonymous -- 2019-02-20 09:08

Je vous remercie de l'information! Je cherchais et ne pouvait pas trouver. Vous me aidé!

Add New Comment