#### Table of Contents

# Remez tutorial 5/5: additional tips

This part of the tutorial is constantly updated. Check its history to know what is new.

## What to do when the solver doesn’t converge?

It may happen that the solver doesn’t converge. There are many possible reasons for that:

- the function being approximated is not smooth enough; try to increase the polynomial degree, or reduce the approximation range.
- the solver cycles between a finite number (usually 3 or 4) of solutions; in this case, experiments indicate that you may safely choose the solution with the smaller error.

## Floating point precision

The Remez algorithm performs high precision computations to find its solutions. As a result, the polynomial coefficients found are printed with far more decimals than the usual `double`

or `float`

numbers can store. So when you write:

float a = 8.333017134192478312472752663154642556843e-3;

The exact value of `a`

is actually:

8.333017118275165557861328125e-3 ^-- this decimal changes!

See “fixing lower-order parameters” for both an explanation of why this can be a problem, and a method to reduce the introduced error.

## When not to use Remez?

There are cases when you should expect the Remez algorithm to potentially perform badly:

- when the function is not continuous (for instance, a step function)
- when the function is not differentiable (for instance, the
*x+abs(x)*function) - sometimes when the function is not smooth
- sometimes even when the function is not analytic

There are cases where you should not try to use the Remez algorithm at all:

- when the
**source**range is not finite,*eg.*[0,+∞] - when the
**destination**range is not finite,*eg.**log(x)*tends to -∞ near 0 - when the function to approximate has an infinite derivative at a point contained in or near the approximation range,
*eg.**sqrt(x)*or*cbrt(x)*in 0

## What if I want to use Remez anyway?

If you need to approximate a function *f(x)* over [a,+∞] and for some reason you want to use the Remez exchange algorithm, you can still through a change of variable: *y = 1/x*. The function to approximate becomes *f(1/y)* and the new range is [0,1/a] (see “changing variables” for how to deal with *1/x* in 0). The minimax polynomial will use *1/x* as its variable; please be aware that computing *1/x* at runtime may be expensive.

## Conclusion

Please report any trouble you may have had with this document to sam@hocevar.net. You may then return to the Remez exchange documentation.